Kamis, 29 Maret 2012

TYPES OF TENSES

UNIVERSITAS GUNADARMA
FAKULTAS EKONOMI / MANAJEMEN

MATKUL : BAHASA INGGRIS

NAMA : APRILIA MOEHNIKASARI
KELAS: 1EA26
NPM    : 19211332



CHAPTER I

DEFINITION TENSES





            In this paper I will discuss about the various and use of tenses in English. Tenses is the syntax. As we know, tenses are important in learning English, or the use of English in all respects. Therefore I would like to discuss about the tenses so that we better understand about the tenses, so we did not err in applying the English language.

            In Indonesia in the know english 16 tenses in general although only 12 tenses. English tenses in simple sentences can be interpreted as a change according to time refer to the past (Past), present (Present) and future (Future). By understanding the English language tenses we can construct a sentence with a better though not necessarily always be used. Like the Indonesian language, we must consider the use of tenses in a sentence. What should we say if you make a sentence which we do, we're doing, and we will do. In English, the pattern of negative and positive sentences are different, there is the addition of the words in the pattern of negative sentences. Not much different from Indonesian, English only more specific in the use of the word.

• Definition of Tenses

            Tenses is the syntax, a sentence patterns used in the English sentence. Without the sentence pattern, we would be hard to make a correct sentence, and may be mistaken. So we must learn the correct sentence pattern so you can easily make the English sentence.
Tenses are divided into many different forms, there is the past tense, the present form, and shape the future. In three different categories of tenses, it is also divided into several different sentence patterns. Here are 16 tenses english we will learn, let's discuss one by one.

A.    Present tense

- Simple present tense

The Simple Present Tense is the tenses of the most widely used, and because most of the discussion will also be longer. Simple meaning that is simple, while the present is now. So to say that the Simple Present tenses (sentence patterns) used to tell the current time in a simple form. Present is the name other than SHAPE 1. So whenever you see the word tenses present in any case, it is certain that he used the form 1 - form what? yes verb form, as all the required predicate verb.

- Present Continuous tense
Present Continuous tense in English tenses are used for actions taking place now, the events at the time was talking and the action lasted only for short periods of time. Present Continuous tense is also called the Present Progressive Tense.

- Present Perfect tense
Present Perfect tense forms in English tenses are used for a simple action that is still ongoing or new sajar quit, but have an influence until the present. Placing an emphasis on results.

- Present Perfect Continuous tense
Present Perfect Continuous revealed that action has been initiated in the past and still continues. English tenses are also used to tell the story that began in the past and has just finished.

2. Past tenses

- Simple Past tense

Simple past tense is used to reveal the events that have occurred at certain times in the past. events can be short or long. Means can also be several events taking place one after one. In general, there are two important facts to remember in this english tenses:
- Irregular verbs (Irregular Verbs)
- Negative sentences and questions are not as positive sentence but retain the basic form of the verb

- Past Continuous tense
Past Continuous Tense reveal past actions in progress. Sometimes actions can also be interrupted by something. forms of English tenses are also called Past Progressive Tense.

- Past Perfect Tense
We use the Past Pefect (simple) tense to indicate an action in the past related to other actions earlier in the past.

- Past Perfect Continuous tense
Perfect Continuous Tense is used to express an action that began in the past and continue until another action in the past.

            Difference between the Present Perfect Continuous and Past Perfect Continuous is: Present Perfect Continuous reveal the action continues in the present while not Past Perfect Continuous.


3. (Present) Future Tenses

- (Present) Future Simple tense
            Among all forms of Future tenses, Future Simple is the most common, used in many situations such as when making appointments, predictions or plans. Future Tense is also called the Present Tense Future.

                        Simple Future Tense is divided into two forms, namely "Will / shall" and "going     to" but have different uses.

                        "Going to" is used in pronouncing an action plan which has been made ​​before        berbicara.Juga jauh2 used to express a prediction based on the signs at this time (probably inevitable).

                        "Going to" well known in the word "gonna" is often used in informal situations.             IMPORTANT: Avoid using the word "gonna" in the English language test or formal atmosphere.

                        "Will" is used in pronouncing a plan of action that you just think of / have not been planned / spontaneous moment berbicara.juga used to reveal the prophecy will happen based on calculations or feeling (not necessarily the certainty).

            - (Present) Future Continuous tense
                        Future Continuous tense is generally used to indicate that we will be in the midst   of an event within a certain time in the future. Future Continuous also known as Future Present Continuous.

                        Future Continuous also have two forms of "will" and "going to" have the same meaning and interchangeable when used. In contrast to the use of the simple future tense.

            - (Present) Future Perfect tense
            We use the Future Perfect tenses english to declare events that will be completed in the future that has already begun in the past. Future Perfect Future Perfect also called Present Tense or Future Perfect Simple Tense.

- (Present) Future Perfect Continuous Tense
            We use the Future Perfect Continuous tenses english to tell the events that will take place at a certain time in the future. Future Perfect Continuous Tense is also called the Present Continuous or Future Perfect Future Perfect Progressive.





4. Conditional / Past Tense Future

  - (Simple) Conditional / Past Future tense
              Future Simple Past Tense is used to reveal the events that will happen in     the past (not present, the opposite of the simple future tense).

- Conditional / Continuous Past Future tense
            We use the Future Continuous or Past Past Progressive Future tense english to tell an action that will be happening in the past (for that is happening in the present so-called Continuous Future Tense).

- Conditional / Past Future Perfect tense
            Pefect Future Past Tense is used to express action that will be done in the past (please compare the difference with the Future Perfect Tense).

- Conditional / Past Future Perfect Continuous tense
            English past tense is used to reveal the events that would have been going on in the past. Past perfect continuous tense future has much in common with the future perfect continuous tense.


CHAPTER II

TYPES OF TENSES
AND THE FORMULAS



A.         Present Tense

Ø  PRESENT SIMPLE tense
            This sentence pattern digunakanunutk declare a habit or activity that occurs repeatedly - again and or continuous. Sentence pattern is S + V-1 + O, V-1 plus s / es. Take a look at examples of sentences with the Simple Present the following:

Tobe
I am a teacher
You are a teacher
We are teachers
They are teachers
He is a teacher
She is a teacher
It is my cat

            If you observe, then, above all use traditional phrase-1 predicate or predicate in the form of one, just look at it not tobe separated from the AM - IS - ARE. The example above is the simple present tense in nominal terms, because all the sentences using the tobe-1.
            Are there other forms? There, that The Simple Present Tense in verbal form. Ie who do not have tobe but have verb. Will be explained later. For now we simply conclude that there are 2 (two) types of the Simple Present:

1)      Nominal Simple Present

            To change the PRESENT SIMPLE NOMINAL sentences into negative form (deny) or interrogative (asking) is straightforward, observe
  (+) You are a teacher
(- ) You are NOT a teacher
(? ) Are you a teacher?

2)      Verbal Simple Present
            Now we proceed to the PRESENT SIMPLE VERBAL sentence patterns - that is simple that does not use tobe present, but its VERB1 as predicate1. Observe the following example:
subjective
Example pronouns
I I work
You You Work
We We work
They work They
He He works
She she works
It It works
            See, for the prefix HE, SHE, IT verb _S its use. Observe again the following example:
He runs every morning
She teaches English
John has an English books
            For verbs that end zing (hissing sounds - x, ch, s, sh), we use the suffixes _es. thus becomes: teaches, mixes, washes, kisses, etc:
            Exercise 1 :
1.      read : John reads in the morning
2.      Study : John studies
3.      Watch : John watches
4.      Finish : John finishes
5.      Mix : John mixes
6.      Pass : John passes
7.      Go : John goes
8.      Have : John have(s) -> John has
9.      Pray : John prays
Observe again the example sentence:
            For the verb study - before the letter Y is a consonant letter D, which is why a STUDIES. For the verb pray - before the letter Y is a vowel, which is why it PRAYS.
Exercise 2 :
Which HAVE and HAS
We -> We HAVE coffee in the morning
He -> He HAS coffee in the morning
1. he
2 John and Mary
3. they
4. Mr. Allen
5. she
6. Mary
7. the students
8. my brothers
9. my brother
10. You and I
11. he and she
12. Mary’s sister
13. Mary’s sisters
            Grammar learning should not be interrupted. Surely you already know that there are 3 groups of tenses is Present Tense, Past Tense and Future Tense each group each having four tenses. Where for each one has its tenses Verbal and Nominal type.

            For the Simple Present has a predicate type or its Nominal and Verbal Tobe1 the predicatenya Verb1. Still understand dong, okey we go again. For Nominal Present Simple, you've really understood how to use. Tobe for each subjective pronounsnya, while for the Verbal Simple Present - all beginning with He, She, It was the verb to get additional + S as follows.

I write
You write
We write
They write
He writes
She writes
It writes
            Likewise the verb HAVE as He Have (s) get an additional (s) - so the sentence is to be HE HAS. Changes Negative and Interrogative Sentences:
I
You DON’T (do not) GO
We
They
Ex : I don’t go, You don’t go, We don’t go, They don’t go. Selanjutnya amati sbb.
He
She DOESN’T (does not) GO
It
            Observe, in the sentence negative / interrogative beginning with He, She, It was a verb (verb) it returns to normal DO NOT USE + S again because it DOES exist.

(+) You write
(-) You DON’T write
(?) DO you write?
(+) He writes
(-) He DOESN’T write
(?) Does he write?
Observe another example
(+) You have a book
(-) You DON’T have a book
(?) DO you have a book?
(+) He has a book
(-) He DOESN’T have a book
(?) DOES he have a book?
Ø  PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE
            Perfect Continuous Tense is used to express an action that began in the past and continue until another action in the past.
usage:
            1. Duration of action of the past until a certain time point in the past also
2. Conditionals (Conditional Sentence) Type III
If it had not been raining, we would have played football
3. Sentence indirect (reported speech)
Ann: I was crying
George: Ann said she had been crying
George: Ann said that she had been crying
Formula
Positive (+): Subject + had + been + verb-ing + object
Negative (-): Subject + had + not + been + verb-ing + object
Question (?): Had + subject + been + object?
            Difference between the Present Perfect Continuous and Past Perfect Continuous is: Present Perfect Continuous reveal the action continues in the present while not Past Perfect Continuous.
He has been playing for two hours
Dia telah bermain selama 2 jam (dia masih bermain atau baru saja selesai)
He had been playing for two hours when arrived
Dia telah bermain selama 2 jam ketika saya tiba (sekarang tidak sedang bermain).
3. PRESENT ( FUTURE TENSE )
Ø  PRESENT ( SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE )
            Among all forms of Future tenses, Future Simple is the most common, used in many situations such as when making appointments, predictions or plans. Future Tense is also called the Present Future Tense. Simple Future Tense is divided into two forms, namely
            "Will / shall" and "going to" but have different uses.
            "Going to" is used in pronouncing an action plan which has been made ​​before berbicara.Juga jauh2 used to express a prediction based on the signs at this time (probably inevitable)
            "Going to" well known in the word "gonna" is often used in informal situations. IMPORTANT: Avoid using the word "gonna" in the English language test or formal atmosphere.
            "Will" is used in pronouncing a plan of action that you just think of / have not been planned / spontaneous moment berbicara.juga used to reveal the prophecy will happen based on calculations or feeling (not necessarily the certainty).
Will often abbreviated
will = 'ill
Will not = will not
Will / shall also often used with "problably, most likely, I think, I'm sure, I wonder (if, what, when, etc), I expect"
Formula
Positif (+) : Subject + will/shall + verb I + object
                 Subject + am/is/are + going to + verb I + object
Negatif (-) : Subject + will/shall + verb I + object
                  Subject + am/is/are + not + going to + verb I + object
Tanya (?) : Will/shall + subject + verb I + object
                Am/is/are + subject + going to + verb I + object
Ø  ( PRESENT ) FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE
            Future Continuous tense is generally used to indicate that we will be in the midst of an event within a certain time in the future. Future Continuous also known as Future Present Continuous.
            Future Continuous also have two forms of "will" and "going to" have the same meaning and interchangeable when used. In contrast to the use of the simple future tense.
use.
1.      Future action in progress
2.      Suspicion between the present and future
Joni will not be sleeping now
Joni is not going to sleep now (I think Joni did not sleep now)
3.      To politely ask a question about one's intentions
will you be coming home?
Will you come to my house? (I hope you come to the house)


Formula
Positif (+) : Subject + will/shall + be + verb-ing + object
Negatif (-) : Subject + will/shall + not + verb-ing + object
Question (?) : Will/shall + subject + be + verb-ing + object
Ø  ( PRESENT ) FUTURE PERFECT TENSE
                        We use the Future Perfect tenses english to declare events that will be completed   in the future that has already begun in the past. Future Perfect Future Perfect also called Present Tense or Future Perfect Simple Tense.
      Formula
      Positive (+): Subject + shall / will + have + been + complement
                     Subject + shall / will + have + object + verb III
Negative (-): Subject + shall / will + not + been + complement
                     Subject + shall / will + not + have + object + verb III
Question (?): Shall / will + subject + been + complement
                       Shall / will + have + subject + verb + object III?
Ø  ( PRESENT ) FUTURE PERFECT CONTINOUS TENSE
        We use the Future Perfect Continuous tenses english to tell the events that will take place at a certain time in the future. Future Perfect Continuous Tense is also called the Present Continuous or Future Perfect Future Perfect Progressive.
Formula
Positive (+): Subject + shall / will + have + been + verb-ing + object
Negative (-): Subject + shall / will + not + have + been + verb-ing + object
Question (?): Shall / will + subject + have + been + verb-ing + object?



4. CONDITONAL / PAST FUTURE TENSE
Ø  ( SIMPLE ) CONDITIONAL / PAST FUTURE TENSE
      Future Simple Past Tense is used to reveal the events that will happen in the past (not present, the opposite of the simple future tense).
Formula
Positif (+) : Subject + should/would + be + object
                    Subject + should/would + verb I + object
Negatif (-) : Subject + should/would + not + be + object
                   Subject + should/would + not + verb + object
Question (?) : Should/would + subject + be + object ?
                       Should/would + subject + verb I + object ?
      We use the Future Continuous or Past Past Progressive Future tense english to tell an action that will be happening in the past (for that is happening in the present so-called Continuous Future Tense).
formula
Positive (+) : Subject + should / would + be +-ing verb + object
Negative (-) : Subject + should / would + not + be +-ing verb + object
Question (?) : Should / would + be + subject + object + verb-ing?
Ø  CONDITIONAL / PAST FUTURE PERFECT TENSE
      Pefect Future Past Tense is used to express action that will be done in the past (please compare the difference with the Future Perfect Tense).
Formula
Positif (+) : Subject + should/would + have + been + complement
                    Subject + should/would + have + verb III + object
Negatif (-) : Subject + should/would + not + have + been + complement
                    Subject + should/would + not + have + verb III + object
Question (?) : Should/would + subject + have + been + complement ?
                       Should/would + subject + have + verb III + object ?
Ø  CONDITIONAL / PAST FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE
      English past tense is used to reveal the events that would have been going on in the past. Past perfect continuous tense future has much in common with the future perfect continuous tense.
            Formula
            Positif (+) : Subject + should/would + have + been + verb-ing + object
            Negatif (-) : Subject + should/would + not + have + been + verb-ing + object
            Tanya (?) : Should/would + subject + have + been + verb-ing + object ?


CHAPTER III
EXAMPLE

1.       Present Tenses
      - simple present tense
1.      My sister has a car (+)
My sister doesn’t have a car (-)
does my sister have a car? (?)
2.      The cat drinks (+)
The cat doesn’t drink (-)
does the cat drink? (?)
3.      Joe has breakfast (+)
Joe doesn’t have breakfast (-)
does Joe have breakfast? (?)
4.      Our brother teaches (+)
Our brother doesn’t teach (-)
does our brother teach? (?)
5.      John’s sisters have a car (+)
John’s sisters don’t have a car (-)
do John’s sisters have a car? (?)
1.      I am watching TV now (+)
Mr. Khanafi is not going to Jakarta (-)
Is Mrs. Annisa cooking in the kitchen ? (?)
2.      I am writing now (+)
I am NOT writing now (-)
Are you writing now? (?)
3.      You are reading my article at present (+)
You are NOT reading my article at present (-)
Are You reading my article at present? (?)
4.       She is waiting for you.(+)
 She is NOT waiting for you (-)
 Is She waiting for you ? (?)
1.      I have been at home for a month (+)
Mr. Handoko has not eaten the sate already (-)
Has Mr. Imam been here since 06.00 ? (?)
2.      She has gone (+)
She has not gone (-)
Has She gone? (?)
3.      You have played football (+)
You have not played football (-)
Have you played football? (?)
Keterangan waktu (adverb of time) yang digunakan,
“for” dan “since” merupakan keterangan waktu yang sangat umum digunakan dalam Present Perfect Continuous tense.
1.      I have been living in this house for nine years (+)
I have not been living in this house for nine yearsnine years (-)
Have you been living in this house for nine years? (?)
2.      We have been studying English for a month. (+)
We have not been studying English for a month.(-)
Have we been studying English for a month? (?)
2. Past Tenses
1.      I went to Surabaya (+)
I didn't go to Surabaya (-)
Did you go to Surabaya? (?)
2.      They went to Surabaya (+)
They didn't go to Surabaya (-)
Did they go to Surabaya? (?)
3.      We went to Surabaya (+)
We didn't go to Surabaya (-)
Did we go to Surabaya? (?)

- Past Continuous tense
1.      He was sleeping when I came (+)
He was not sleeping when I came (-)
Was he sleeping when I came ? (?)
2.      I was working all night yesterday (+)
I was not working all night yesterday (-)
were you working all night yesterday ? (?)
3.      Joko was sleeping (+)
Joko was NOT sleeping (-)
Was Joko Sleeping ?(?)


1.      They had been here before 1945 (+)
They had not been here before 1945 (-)
Had they been here before 1945 ? (?)
2.      She had gone to Amsterdam when I called her (+)
She had not gone to Amsterdam when I called her (-)
Had she gone to Amsterdam when you called her ? (?)
3.      You had left the airport before I arrived (+)
You had not left the airport before I arrived (-)
Had you left the airport before I arrived? (?)
4.      I had told him my name after he asked me twice (+)
I had not told him my name after he asked me twice (-)
Had you told him your name after he asked you twice? (?)
1.      He had been living in Jakarta about ten years (+)
He had not been living in Jakarta about ten years (-)
Had He been living in Jakarta about ten years ? (?)
3. (Present) Future Tenses
      - (Present) Simple Future tense
1.      We will go to school soon (+)
We will not go to school soon (-)
Will we go to school soon ? (?)
2.      The students are going to have a test next month (+)
The students are not going to have a test next (-)
Are the students going to have a test next month ? (?)
1.      I will be watching a movie tonight (+)
I will not be watching a movie tonight (-)
Will you be watching a movie tonight ? (?)
1.      I will have been in this hospital until tomorrow morning (+)
I will not have been in this hospital until tomorrow morning (-)
Will you have been in this hospital until tomorrow morning ? (?)
2.      Majid will have rented my house next month (+)
Majid will not have rented my house next month (-)
Will Majid have rented my house next month ? (?)
1.      My grandmother will have been visiting us tomorrow morning (+)
My grandmother will not have been visiting us tomorrow morning (-)
Will your grandmother have been visiting you tomorrow morning? (?)
4. Conditional / Past Future Tense
- (Simple) Conditional / Past Future tense
1.      He should be in Banten next month (+)
He should not be in Banten next month (-)
Should he be in Banten next month ? (?)
2.      I should be pick up when you arrive at the station tomorrow (+)
I should not be pick up when you arrive at the station tomorrow (-)
should you be pick up when I arrive at the station tomorrow ? (?)


1.      My brother would be finishing Thesis last week (+)
My brother would not be finishing Thesis last week (-)
Would your brother be finishing Thesis last week? (?)
1.      My mother should have been here at nine o’clock tomorrow (+)
My mother should not have been here at nine o’clock tomorrow (-)
Should your mother have been here at nine o’clock tomorrow ? (?)
2.      Mar’i would have worked in leading companies next month (+)
Mar’i will not have worked in leading companies next month (-)
Will Mar’i have worked in leading companies next month ? (?)
1.      I would have working in leading companies for 10 years (+)
I would not have working in leading companies for 10 years (-)
Would you have working in leading companies for 10 years ? (?)



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